Initially written Feb 2011, Some updates March 2017
Video of a presentation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLZvECvfQ8s
The purpose of the Mobile Phone Workshop is to enable senior people to get the best possible usage out of their Mobile Phone.
These workshops are to help you understand the technology that is in your phone. This is NOT a technology course.
The methodology of the workshops is for each participant to bring along their own mobile phone and the phones manual. You will be responsible for your own equipment. After receiving a brief description of the concepts of mobile phones what will be presented will be up to each participant.
It should be appreciated because of idiosyncrasies of each different model of phone and different features that each phone has, that what applies to one person may not apply to others and that some, one on one, time may be required. Because of this the workshops will be limited to 4 participants.
To enable the workshop tutor to get ready for the workshop please email them your name and the make and model of the phone you will be bringing to the workshop so that they can possibly download the manual of you phone from the internet and read it beforehand.
Email address of Geoff Greig email@example.com
The best way to learn how to use your phone is to experiment. Fortunately modern phones make experimentation very easy however it can become expensive to make many phone calls or use some of the phones features like SMS's or data services. It is essential that you know the cost of using your phone before you do any experimentation . See Phone deals
The most difficult part of learning how to use a mobile phone is simply coming to grips with the terminology and what each of the functions of your phone do. Hopefully these notes and this course will overcome these difficulties. Under the heading Functions of Mobile Phones is a list of the things that most common mobile phones can do. To the right of each item may may be a link that explains what the function does (how to do it). Below most of the explanations will be exercises that you can perform which will further help in your understanding of the function.
The exercises are an important part of learning how to use your phone. It may be well worth repeating them several times, especially if you do not understand what the function is meant to be doing
This material will often refer you to your phones manual.
Some phone come with a printed manual, but the modern trend is not to supply a manual with the phone at all or to only supply it on a computer disk or on the internet or with smart phones to have the manual built in to the phone itself.
In practice most people do NOT read the manuals and as a consequence the manual authors tend to have extremely brief descriptions on how to use various functions of phones. The authors of phone manuals tend to be technical people and write for a audience of their peers, such that the average senior person can not understand the manual. In some cases because the manuals are written so badly that even very technically literate people have trouble reading them. The design of the user functionality of the phones them selves can also be a problem in seniors people learning to use mobile phones.
One of the major problems with reading a phone manual is simply finding the part of the manual that has the description of what you are trying to learn. If you phone manual had a alphabetic index at the back this can be very handy, however many do not have such an index. The table of contents at the beginning of the manual, if it is logically layed out, can be useful. One of the best ways to use a manual is to have it electronically on a computer and use the computers find function to find what you are looking for in the manual. Often manuals can be downloaded from the internet if they are not supplied on a computer disk.
If you have trouble understanding the phones manual often it can be because the manual is using terminology you are not familiar with. That is what theses course notes are all about. Hopefully after reading these notes before reading your manual the technical jargon will be sufficiently explained so that it will be easier for you to understand the manual.
I have discovered that the reason people have trouble using the manuals is because they are not in the correct mode within their phone to do what they want to do, such that the manual instructions make no sense. Often this can be the manuals fault because it does not explain which mode you need to be in, before it describes the function . Even if a manual does describe that you need to be within a certain mode before performing a function often the manual will refer you to another page for this, so making things more confusing.
Often the acquiring of understanding will make it easier for you to understand your phones manual. After you have successfully learnt how to perform a function, on you phone, then read or re-read that part of your manual as it is likely to make more sense and your new found understanding may make reading other parts of the manual easier.
According to this article http://www.cellular-news.com/story/30809.php on the cellular News web site of 28th Apr 2008 there were more mobile phones Services in operation at 30 June 2007 than there were people in Australia.
And in this article http://www.engadget.com/2010/01/15/gartner-forecasts-phones-overtaking-pcs-as-most-common-web-brows/ it has been predicted by a reputable research organisation that by 2015 mobile phones will overtake PCs as most common web browsing device.
To get some perspective of the influence mobile have had on the world watch this utube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7D55ZK89S34
Considering the above, it is well worthwhile coming to grips with what your mobile phone can do and what the later and future models will be able to do.
A good background to what has and is happening with mobile phone, complements of the ABC can be found here:
Or if it is no longer at that location, try here:
Below is a very short and simple explanation. For more detailed information click on the links at the end of this section
Mobile phones are an extension of the normal phone network, so how do normal house (land line) phones work?
When you pick a land line phone it goes off hock and you are connected to the exchange and you get a dial tone. When you key in the number you want to call the equipment at the telephone exchange makes the appropriate connection via other exchanges to the person you want to call. When you speak your voice is picked up by a microphone and converted into electrical pulses that travel along, usually copper wires, to the receivers phone where those electrical pulses go into a speaker such that you are able to hear the sound of the person speaking. In modern land line calls it is also very likely that part of the journey of the electrical pulses may be converted to digital signals.
For a more detailed explination see here http://communication.howstuffworks.com/telephone.htm
With mobile phones the calls are still routed through land lines. Unless you are calling a person, also with a mobile phone, that is very close to you, so in the same cell area (explained later) the conversation will partly go through the same land lines that are used for land line calls. See this diagram:
Unlike land line calls their is no off-hook with a mobile phone. Before you can make a call on a mobile phone you have to be within radio range of a mobile phone tower. This is usually indicated on the phone's display as a series of five bars, the more bars that are shown the stronger the signal strength. Mobile phone or Cell Phones as the Americans call then, use low powered radio to communicate between the phone and the mobile phone tower. The reason they are low powered radios is so the radio signal only radiates a relatively small distance (a cell) so that the same radio frequency can be used in non adjacent cells as shown in this diagram: As their is no dial tone on mobile phones you enter the number you wish to call without being connected to a telephone exchange or the tower and then indicate that you wish to be connected. Via some computer functions within the mobile phone and the mobile phone tower the call is connected to the recipients phone. This is done on a separate channel different to the channels that are used when conversations take place so allowing dialling/connecting to be achieved independently from the conversations.
With digital mobile phones the phone itself converts your voice, picked up via the microphone, into a digital signal that is sent via radio to the mobile phone tower where it is routed via digital phone lines (usually cables) to the recipients phone or to the mobile tower closest to the recipients, if they are on a mobile phone. If that phone is a mobile phone, radio will be used between the the tower and the recipients phone and the signal will be digital the entire connection. If the recipients phone is a land line, at some point, the digital signal will be converted to a analogue sound.
Digital signals have the benefit over analogue signals in that they can be compressed (take up less space) so allowing multiple conversations to take place on the one wire or radio frequency.
Via the computer software in the phones and the mobile phone network as you and your phone move you are automatically switched from one mobile phone tower (cell) to another including the changing of radio frequency.
For a more detailed explanation see http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cell-phone.htm or do a Google search on Mobile Phones and Cell Phones.
UPDATE: March 2017
Since the below material was first written the way mobile phone deals are marketed has changed quite a lot. Now most of the phone deals provide unlimited calls and texting (SMS's) But they still do not provide is unlimited data. The price breaks in phone deals now usually provide for more data the more you pay and sometime included calls to some overseas countries. Now it is less important how many calls or SMS's you make and more important how much mobile data you use on your phone and how much it will cost if you exceed the monthly data quota.
Here is a recording of a presentation I did on Mobile Phone Deals: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EulxaDkwZO0
It is virtually impossible to list all the deals that are available for mobile phones or to establish which one is best for a particular persons requirements. Their are some websites that compare deals side by side from some of the major telecommunication companies, but to do so you need to indicate the pattern of your current or anticipated mobile phone usage. Unfortunately most people only know what they pay each month and not how many calls they make and when they make them. However most companies do have available for post paid (see later) deals the facility to view on a web site all the calls that you have made and this information can be accumulated on a computer over a period of time. Use of this accumulated information is the best way to establish which is the best deal to be on.
Although the functionality exists in some phones to show you the total of your bill at any time most service providers do not provide for this functionality. Mobile phone service providers know that a large number of people would not use their phone as much if they new the total value of their bill after each call. If you have a smart phone with internet access it is possible with some service providers via a long login procedure to see your total bill at that point in time. However the difficulty in doing this means that few people use it.
Without reading the fine print of every phone service providers contract it is difficult to know what you can and will be charged for. Often those that sell phone deals and the phone service providers call centre staff also do not know this information or provide incorrect information. Phone service provides deliberately make their deals complex, than it otherwise could be, so that you as a consumer can not make a complete informed decision.
Their are generally 2 ways to purchase a mobile phone, outright or as part of some subscription service. Generally the advantage of purchasing a mobile phone outright is that you are then free to change from one phone service provider to another at any time without any financial penalty. However the best time to change would be at the end of a billing cycle to get the value out of what you have paid for. Another advantage of purchasing a phone outright is that generally the monthly base charge is less than otherwise because you are not actually paying off the phone and applicable interest, which is not usually disclosed. If purchasing a phone outright you should insure that the phone is not SIM locked.
SIM locking is a software feature of mobile phones such that phone can only be used with a particular phone service providers SIM cards. It is typically set with pre paid purchased mobile phones but can sometimes apply to phones purchased outright or post paid deals. Usually phone service provides will for a fee or after a period of time, for no fee, remove SIM locks on mobile phones. It is also possible via the internet or via downloading software from the internet to unlock SIM locked phones. Some smaller mobile phone retails will also SIM unlock phones for a fee that is typically far less than that charges by the phone service provider.
Weather you purchase your phone outright or as part of a subscription service you can pay for the service you uses before you use it, pre paid, or after you use it Post paid. The big disadvantage of post paid deals is that you usually do not know what your monthly bill is going to be until you get the bill. Many parents have been very surprised to get a very high bill for a post paid phone they have allowed their children to use. With pre paid you can purchase, via various means, a certain amount of $ credits that is applied to your account. As you use services the cost of those services is taken off you credit until it gets to zero in which case you will no longer be able to use those services until you, top up your credit. However for a period of time (varies with phone service providers) you will be able to receive calls.
The two major disadvantages of pre paid deals is that you may not know if you are going to run out of credits and thus not be able to make a important call and because you typically do not get a monthly bill, you have may no record of the services you have used and when you used them.
In post paid deals, because the phone service provider may have given you some incentive to use them, and because they want you to stay with then as a customer, they may get you to enter a contract that has a defined time limit, say 12 or 24 months. If you wish to exit that contract before that time limit, most service providers have exit fees. This typically is the monthly charge times the remaining months in the contract. It is important you know up front if you will be required to pay exit fees should you wish to end the contract as it can make a significant difference to what decisions you may be able to make in the future. Typically mobile phone deals over time have provide possible savings compared to those of the past.
Services you are likely to be charged for are:
All Providers for Post paid deals charge a monthly fee. Usually the higher the fee the more included not separately charged (included) calls and some times other services are provided. Also where a phone is supplied as part of the post paid deal the higher the monthly fee a more expensive phone is provided
Most providers charge a fee for connecting the call which is charged once per call regardless of the duration of the call. Also know as a flag fall this is a hangover from the times when people, telephone switchboard operators, would connect a call for you. Although the connection system is now completely automatic and always has been for mobile phone calls, most providers still charge this fee. Mainly because they can. To put it into some perspective it would be like Internet Service Providers (ISP's) charging a fee every time you change to a different web page. Of course they do not yet the technology used to connect using mobile phone calls is much the same as that of changing web pages.
Many overseas phone service providers do not charge a connection fee but at the time this was written (March 2011) only one Australian provider did not charge a connection fee.
Currently all mobile phone service providers charge based on the duration of the call. However the method and rates can vary substitutional between providers. Whilst some charge per second, others charge per 30 seconds and at least one charges per minute. Regardless of the rate charged this method of charging can have a substitutional effect on a total monthly bill when comparing providers. Very few providers have reduced the rate they charge per time increment since mobiles first where available even though, mainly because of technology changes, their cost have reduced dramatically over time. Rather than reducing their rates most phone providers have provided more, supposed “free” features to their deals so making it extremely difficult to compare providers.
Even though the rate may be the same to call your neighbour next door as it does someone on the other side of the country, certain numbers may be charged at different rates or, may or may not be included in the included calls. These numbers have different prefixes than normal numbers such as 1 300, 1800 and 1 900.
In the mobile phone world, roaming basically means that instead of using your own phone provider you use a different providers network but it is charged back to you. Because the other provider is typically in opposition with your provider or is in another country, their roaming charges are typically much higher than non roaming charges. In Australia practically all providers can be used in most capital cities so it is unlikely that you will get roaming charges. However if you use your Australian mobile phone provider while overseas you will be charged at roaming rates.
If you use your Australian provider whilst overseas, in addition to the being charged at roaming rates for the calls made, you will also be charged the international leg of any call you receive. This is because, unlike land line phones, when you ring a mobile phone you do not usually know where in the world the phone you are calling is. So to save the caller to a mobile phone being charged at overseas rates, international agreements where made between the worlds phone provides that the cost of the international leg of overseas calls is born by the receiver.
Typically it will cost you less to use your mobile phone overseas if you set up a prepaid phone deal in the country you are in and so change the SIM card to that country's provider or arrange to have people in Australia ring you on an overseas land line. An ever better alternative, if you have the equipment, is to use Voice over IP (VOIP) facilities on a computer such as Skype.
Mobile phone service providers love people using SMS messages because they put very little strain on their networks (one SMS would be equivalent to less than on second of talk time on a 3G network), yet they provide them a great revenue stream. This is because the providers charge one SMS charge for each SMS sent and they define that one SMS to be limited to 160 characters or less. Even though most modern mobile phone allow you to enter SMS messages of longer than 160 characters the providers charge you an SMS charge per 160 character or part their of.
To put this into some perspective, it is also now possible with the later phones, to send and receive emails. Yet emails messages are charged at data rates rather then SMS rates. Some plans have included data in the monthly charge. Assuming you can get such, one Gigabyte can cost $30. At $0.25 per 160 characters for SMS's, this is equivalent to over $1.6 million per Gigabyte.
Again the rates that service providers charge for SMS's has not changed since SMS's first became available yet the technology that allows them to be sent has resulted in dramatic cost saving as can be seem above.
If you send a SMS message to a mobile phone overseas or whilst overseas send a SMS message to a Australia mobile phone you will be charged an overseas SMS charge in addition to the normal SMS charge.
These are charges for information and entertainment services that deliver various forms of content to your mobile phone. They can be purchased by making a phone call, sending a text message, or requesting them via the internet or data connection from your mobile phone. They typically cost multiple dollars per each service. Because they can be requested via the internet it is possible for the requester to enter any mobile number such that you may have these charges appear on your bill without you requesting it. As it is difficult to get premium SMS charges reversed from your mobile bill if you have no intention of ever using such services you can have them bared from your phone.
Most service providers do not have premium SMS services bared from you phone, so that you specifically need to bar them or request that they be bared
Even though most service providers provide a free voice mail service such that you can have a message played to people when your phone is off, out of range or you are on a call, there can be charges for when someone leaves you a message (deposit) and/or when you listen to messages left for you (retrieve). The rates for these vary by service provider.
Most service providers when you first get your mobile service have voice mail switched on. If you do not wish to use it you have to switch it off, arrange to have the number of rings before it goes to a not available message increased and have the not available message removed. That is change 3 separate functions, most of which require you to contact your service provider. This give you some indication of the how much revenue service providers make from voice mail.
This is the charge for sending and receiving data to and from you phone. Typically their is a included amount of data as part of your monthly charge and then an excess usage charge when the included data is exceeded. Theses excess rates tend to be quite high compared to using the same data on computer Internet services.
Unlike wired computer broadband where their is not excess usages charges, rather the internet connection speed is just slowed down, currently all the current phone providers charge excess usage fees.
It is currently cheaper to purchase data from phone providers to be used as mobile broadband on typically a notebook computer than for mobile phones. Yet is possible to successfully use the same SIM cards applicable to computer mobile broadband in modern 3G mobile phones for data use and with some providers also make phone calls.
What makes it extremely difficult to be able to compare the deals that different phone provides have is all the extras they often include in the monthly charge in the case of post paid or the extras included when recharging with prepaid deals. To make it even more difficult more often than not their is the fine print associated with these extras that you may not even understand the consequences of until you get an extremely large bill.
Some of the extras can be:
What is becoming more commonplace is what are being called “capped” plans. That is where for paying a monthly charge you get more than that charge in the value of services. However if you do go over that value you are charged for those extra service. So where is the cap? Their is none.
It is very surprising that no one have take issue with this and made a complaint to the Australian Competitive and Consumer Commission (ACCC) for false advertising.
If all the above was not confusing enough some providers provide bundled deals. That is they bundle together the cost of your land line phone, mobile phone and Internet access into one monthly charge. However again their will inclusions and exclusions in the fine print. Some providers state that a benefit of bundling is that everything appears on one bill. However it can end up costing more for a bundled deal compared to having multiple providers. A careful analysis needs to be performed before changing to a bundled deal.
It is not of much use having a very inexpensive mobile phone deal if you are not able to make calls or get decent mobile reception, or other network dependent functions, when and where you want it. Their are big differences between the coverage (physical areas when a phone can be used) of mobile service providers. Some only provide coverage in major capital cities whilst others have major regional centres as well. All should be able to show you coverage maps. Some providers say they have coverage of XX% of the Australian population. This can be a rather deceptive statement when you consider the mast majority of the Australia population live in capital cities. None of the mobile phone providers have 100% coverage of the Australian Continent. If you want this you need to use a Satellite phone. They don't work inside most buildings.
Also their is a big difference between providers when it comes to data availability on mobile phones. This difference is both, if data is available at all and the speed of the data service. 3G mobile data services are substantially faster than the 2G ones. Again the providers should be able to show you maps of the coverage of 3G and 2G data services.
Over time mobile phones have changed. Compared to the first ones that where big and bulky they then got a lot smaller and compact. More recently as the smart phones have been used more for other than traditional phone functions they have tended to get bigger so that people can read what is on the screen.
Used to dial numbers and enter information and navigate through the phones functions. Most phones only have keys from 0 through to 9 and a few other keys so that to type in text you may have to press a key a number of times. See Use a phone keyboard to type alphabetic letters. In the photo above the shown navigation keys allow the pressing of left, right, up and down arrows. Some phones come with keyboards similar to the layout of computer keyboards and then some have a slide out keyboard.
This is used to convey information in multiple formats to you. The new touch phones also use the screen to operate the phone via entering text via touching the parts of an image that represents a keyboard.
This is used so that you can hear the other party during a call, hear the phone ring, hear sounds when some keys are pressed, heard sounds association with applications, and here audio associated with media players.
Some phone have two speakers, one for calls where you have to put the phone to your ear and another to hear without having to putting the phone to your ear. Some phone do both these functions with the one speaker. Typically because the phones are quite small these speakers are quite small but regardless are still quite effective.
It is used to allow you to speak during a call, to control the phone via your voice and to record sound and video recording. The microphones although very small on modern phones are very effective, often able to pick up sounds quite some distance away.
Other than then keyboard some phone have extra buttons for things like switching the phone on or off, switching on or off silent mode, adjusting speaker volume navigating through the phones functions. These extra buttons can be on any part of the phone such as the top or sides.
Most modern phones have a removable back to allow you to access the battery and SIM card. Some also have a memory card under the removable back.
This is used to power the phone and usually is under the back cover. These batteries are rechargeable and are recharged whilst in the phone. The life of the battery between recharges is dependent on how long you use your phone, especially in calls, and what other functions you use on your phone. eg Using Wifi on a phone will quickly discharge the battery as will any functions that force the display to stay on.
Subscriber Identity Module or Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) cards are used to identify your phone to the mobile network as well as storing some of your contact information and SMS messages. Your mobile phone number is associated to the SIM serial number so that it is possible to change mobile phone numbers by changing the SIM card in your phone. Some phones have duel SIM card slots allowing you to change numbers without changing the SIM card and some allow both SIM's to operate at the same time. Typically the SIM card slot is under the battery behind the removable back of the phone. This forces you to have the phone off, because the battery is removed, when changing SIM cards
These are usually micro SD cards. That is like the SD memory cards that are used in digital Cameras only a smaller format, smaller than your small finger nail. They are used to store information usually applicable to the the application that operate on smart phones.
The point to which you plug in the phone charger to recharge the phones battery. Most phone can be used whilst they are recharging. Some of the newer phones use a USB (interface plug) to charge the phone and can be interfacing with a computer at the same time as recharging
Is used to interface the phone with other equipment, typically a computer. With some of the modern smart phone the phone becomes a external disk drive to the computer so that files containing items such as photos, videos, music and phone applications can be copied or moved to and from the phone.
Is where you can plug in headphones or speakers and or microphones to be used in hand free phone calls or listening to audio from the phone. It can also be used to play sound from the phone to a stereo amplifier.
Please also see Purchase Method Also be aware that unless you are purchasing a phone outright that you are most likely paying undisclosed interest on the value of the phone. The capital cost of a phone is likely to be small as opposed to the total cost of a locked in contract.
The decision as which phone you should purchase is very much dependent on what you intend to use a phone for.
If you only wish to make and receive calls only in Australia then a simple phone would be sufficient. If you also wish to use your phone overseas particularly in the US then a multi band phone that allowed you to use both the Australian and US frequencies could be needed. In Europe and the UK they use the same frequencies as we do in Australia.
If you wish to use higher speed data services like the internet and email on your phone, then a 3G (third Generation) phone is required.
If you wish to be able to use your phone like a computer to add applications then you are going to need a smart phone.
Within all the above their are a mired of shapes sizes and models of mobile phones.
Some of the distinguishing features are:
The term smart phone is used to describe the latest generation of mobile phones. Although their is no exact definition of a smart phone some of their distinguishing features are: The ability to add more functionality to the phone via downloading applications from a online market place, touch screen operation, a full touch screen or separate keyboard and a medium or larger screen.
The most common known smart phone is the Apple IPhone, but others exist such as Androd phone and Knokia smart phones.
To find out about some of my experiences of using a smart phone see My Experiance of using My Android Phone
A completely separate factor to consideration is the operating system (main software used to operate the phone). Mobile phones are computers and different companies provide different phone operating systems and so restrict what you can and can not do on your phone. Often this is done in conjunction with the mobile phone service providers to force you to spend more money with them, than you would otherwise, if those restrictions did not exist.
Some the modern phone operating systems are:
For a more complete list of Mobile phone operating systems see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Mobile_phone_operating_systems
This is a mobile phone operating system owned and developed by Google. Google and other members of the Open Handset Alliance collaborated on Android's development and release. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.
Android is not restricted to operating on one manufacturers handset (the physical phone)so that you are able to chose the handset features that suit your personal preferences.
BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating system, developed by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handheld devices. Being proprietary currently it can not be used on non BlackBerry phones.
iOS (known as iPhone OS prior to June 2010) is Apple's mobile operating system. Originally developed for the iPhone, it has since been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod touch, iPad and Apple TV. Apple does not license iOS for installation on third-party hardware meaning you can not operate it on non apple devices.
Apple although innovative have a reputation for building technological restrictions in to their phones operating system to benefit themselves and their business partners. Examples are disallowing certain applications from being installed, ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will and not allowing communication via less expensive methods such as Voice over IP.
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nokia_OS
Nokia OS (NOS) is an informal name for the operating system in many Nokia mobile phones. These are informal names, there is no such product or trademark. In the past the Nokia operating systems had a reputation of being easier to use compared to other phone manufacturers.
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbian_OS
Symbian is an open source operating system (OS) and software platform designed for smartphones and currently maintained by Nokia. In the number of “smart mobile device” sales, Symbian devices are the market leaders. Statistics published for 2010 showed that Symbian devices comprised a 37.6% share of smart mobile devices sold, with Android having 22.7%, RIM having 16%, and Apple having 15.7% (through iPhone OS) However the dominance of Symbian is to diminish in the future even though the number of Sybian phone being sold is currently increasing.
On February 11, 2011, Nokia announced a partnership with Microsoft that would see it adopt Windows Phone 7 for smartphones, reducing the number of devices running Symbian over the coming two years.
Often overlooked but one of the most important consideration in deciding which phone to purchase is the phones ease of use. Even if a phone has all the features and functionality you want it is not going to be of any use to you if you find it difficult or impossible to us that phone functionality.
Because mobile phones use computer technology a more expensive or brand name phone is not necessary going to be better than a cheaper lesser known phone.
Just because a function is listed here does not mean that your phone can perform this function. Functionality is phone dependant and often phone manufacturers provide more or less functionality, in different models, simply to provide market segmentation, so they can sell some phones a higher prices. More expensive phones do not necessarily provide more functionality
Most phones have the battery under their back cover so that the cover must be removed first. Because of the small size of phones removing the back cover can be difficult. Their is usually some form of plastic tab that has to to be sprung lose to remove the cover. This should be described in the phones manual. However often because of the poor diagrams in the manuals if can be difficult to see where the tabs are to release the back cover or in which direction it should be moved to remove it.
After removing the back cover the battery should be visible. Note which way the battery is inserted so that later it can be re-inserted the same way. It can usually be removed by lifting it at on end. Care should be taken in storing the battery. See the manual for how to do this.
The battery is usually replaced following the reverse order of removal making sure that it goes in the same way it came out. Care should be taken in replacing the back cover because if you break off any of the fixing tabs the cover will not stay on and that weight of the battery will force the back cover off making the phone virtually unusable.
Because some phones continue to operate when switched off, eg setting off an alarm, if a phone malfunctions often switching it off and on again may not fix the problem. In this situation it may be necessary to remove and re-install the battery to get the phone to work correctly.
Although phone manufactures say you should only use the genuine battery it is possible to use after market batteries which are often cheaper than the genuine ones. However you should insure that any after market battery have the same battery capacity in mAh's as otherwise it will not last as long.
Turning on the phone usually done via a separate button, which can be anywhere on the phone, but is often on the top or by one of the phones keyboard keys. Check you manual for how to do it. The button concerned has to be held down for a few seconds. This is so to lessen the chance of the phone being inadvertently being switched on by mistakenly bumping the key. If the phone has been switched on correctly their will be something displayed on the screen usually associated with some form of sound. If the phone does not come on it may mean that the battery is flat. With some phones when the battery is flat it has to be charged for a few minutes even though the phone is being mains powered, before the phone will start.
Turing the phone off can be achieved via pressing a certain button or a menu function of the phone. If via a button again this button has to be held down for a period of time so that it can not be inadvertently being switched of by mistakenly bumping that button or key. Usually a indication will be made via something on the screen and via a sound, that the phone has been switched off.
Some phones will continue to operate in a lower powered mode when switched off so that some functionality such as alarms and reminders still work even when the phone is switched off. As a consequence of this if the operation of the phone does not work correctly you may have to remove the battery to do a complete restart of the phone rather than just switching it off and on again. See removing the battery
The Sim Subscriber Identity Module or Subscriber Identification Module card contains certain information to allow the mobile phone network to identify you and associate your phone to a mobile phone number. By changing sim cards you are effectively changing phone numbers. It is therefore important that if you have a active sim card that is not in you phone that you keep it is a safe place. Otherwise it could be put into virtually any phone and have the calls charged to you. See also Sim Cards and Call Charges
Most phones have the sim card under the battery forcing the phone to be off, because the battery has to be removed first, before the sim card can be removed. See your manual for how to remove and re-insert your sim card.
Some phones allow you to make emergency calls to 000 without a sim card installed
The reason you may wish to change sim cards is to change to a different provider where your normal one does not have coverage or to use a overseas provider if you are travelling overseas See Roaming charges under Call and other charges
Sim cards usually are a small rectangular piece of plastic that have the service providers logo on one side, a gold area on the other side with numbers beside it and a cut away on one corner. It is important that you note the way it is inserted in the phone relative to where the cut away corner is as inserting the sim the wrong way will result in you not being able to make calls. If you have more than one sim card with the same provider it is also advisable to note the numbers on the sim card and what phone number it is applicable to.
Care should also be taken in handling the sim card as if it becomes damaged you will not be able to use the phone to make calls. Most service providers will provide a new sim card at not cost should yours become faulty, however it requires the service provider to de-register your old sim card and register your new one.
Mobile phones, because they are so small, can be kept in a variety of places such as in your pocket. It is therefore very easy for the keys on the phone to be mistakenly pressed and so activating functions inadvertently, like making a call. To overcome this problem most mobile phones have a feature to lock and unlock the keyboard. The unlocking often is achieved my pressing a key and then another key within say one second or in the case of touch screens pressing a button and swiping the screen in some way. Likewise to lock the keyboard is a key is pressed and another key with say one second or in the case of a touch screen the pressing a certain key. Most phone have an automatic timed keyboard locking function that will automatically lock the keyboard if no keys have been pressed for a certain period of time. Via a menu function this length of time can be changed.
Whilst your phone keyboard is locked most functions of the phone can not be used. Some exceptions to this are, answering a call, responding to an alarm and unlocking the keyboard. Check your manual for how to lock and unlock your keyboard
The International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number is virtually the serial number of your phone and is can be used my the mobile phone network to identify a particular phone. If you phone is stolen of misplaced if you report the IMEI number to your service provider they can make it so the phone can not be use regardless of what sim card in in the phone. The IMEI number is usally written on the inside of the phone under the battery and is also usally written somewhere on the packaging the phone was provided in. Another way of finding out the IMEI number is to enter *#06# into the phone. With some phone you may have to then press the call button.
Most of the functionality of your phone is accessed via menus (a list of things you can chose to do) just like you would chose from a menu at a restaurant. Menus on mobile phone can appear in a variety of forms and can be activated via a variety of methods depending on the type of phone you have. The older phones tend to have a text only menu where you select items by highlighting (make the text stand out) the item via pressing certain keys and then active the function by pressing a different key. Later phones tended to have icons (pictures representing functions) rather then text and the later phones again have touch screens where you touch a picture or text of the function you wish to perform.
Whatever the method practically all phone have sub menus from the menus and then sub menus from the sub menus, and so on. Their can be many levels of menus. If you want to be able to use all or even only some of your phones functionality it is important that know and understand how to operate the menus on your phone. You phones manual should have a description of how to operate the menus. Initially it may not be necessary to know or understand what a particular function does. Often you may be able to use what you want to do on your phone without learning all of its functionality but like all things in life if you dont know if something exists you may be missing out on it.
All Mobile phones will have some way of showing the status they are in on their display screen. The way they do so and what they show will be differ for each type of phone.
The status information is usually displayed on the top of the screen. Most phones will have an indicator to show how charged the battery is, usually a rectangular icon (small picture) of a battery with the amount charged indicated by the extent that the rectangle is filled. Practically all phones will have a icon, usually in the form of 5 progressively larger vertical bars to indicate the radio signal strength of between the phone and the mobile phone tower. If your phone can send and receive data it may also have a separate signal strength indicator for data. Often the name of the Service provider is also shown. Some phones, if allowed via a menu setting, show the name of the mobile phone tower that the phone is receiving a radio signal from. A icon, sometimes together with text on the screen, may show to indicate if you have missed a call or have received a SMS message or an email. If you have set a diary event, alarm or a count down time that has expired usually something will indicate this has happened.
The newer smart phones usually have some way to indicate that an application is operating or that an application wishes to notify you of something.
The manual for your phone should show you each status indicator and what it means.
Mobile phones, just like land line phones, indicate that someone is ringing you by usually emitting some form of sound called a ring tone. However unlike the traditional land line phones mobile phones can also or only indicate an incoming call by vibrating and flashing some lights and or display something on its screen. Via using the silent function it is possible to have a mobile phone not make a sound when an incoming call arrives.
When the phone is ringing or indicating you are receiving a call, the way you answer will depend on the setting of the phone. Some phones allow you to answer by pressing any key other then the hang up key, if such a setting has been set, whilst other phones can only be answered by pressing only a call/answer key. Check your manual for how it is achieved on you phone.
Most mobile phones will show you the number of the incoming call or if that number is stored in the contacts of the phone the name of the person ringing. It is possible to reject the incoming call usually by pressing the hang up key. See you manual for how to do this.
Before making a call on a mobile phone you need to first have the phone keyboard unlocked See Unlocking the keyboard, then you need to be in the phone mode or on a screen that allows you to make a call. See the manual for how to do this.
To enter the number press the numbers on the keypad. As you enter each digit of the number it should appear on the phones screen. You can take as long as you like to enter the number as the phone is not off hook, like a land line phone See How Mobile Phones work. If you wish to make an overseas call you can start the number with a + symbol rather than having to enter the international dialling prefix (0011 in Australia, but different in other countries but the + means use the appropriate international dialling prefix for the country you are currently in). The + symbol is usually below the 7 key and is also the * symbol, so to use the + symbol you will may have to press its key multiple times, or if you have a smart phone you may have to select a different keyboard that shows the + symbol separately.
If you make a mistake whilst entering the number you can correct it in a number of ways. If the mistake is the last digit you entered you can press a key, usually indicated on the display as the clear or backspace correcting key. This will remove the last digit you entered. If the number you entered is quite long and the incorrect digit is near the beginning on the number or you have left out a digit, you may be able to press the left navigation key to move to the right of the incorrect digit or if using a smart phone touch to the right of the incorrect digit. Then use the same procedure as above to remove the incorrect digit. Whilst still in the current position of the number pressing any number on the keyboard will insert that number at that position.
After insuring that the number you have entered is correct also look on the display to see that you are receiving a signal from a mobile phone tower, usually shown by a number of vertical bars on the screen. See Phone Status. You can now indicate that you wish to dial the entered number by pressing the call button. Look in your manual for which is the call button.
Provided that you sufficient mobile reception, after a short delay, you may hear a calling tone. Or you may get a message indicating that the person you are trying to call is out or mobile range or has their phone switched off or you may get get a voice mail message.
If you are able to talk to the person, depending on your phone and your phones settings, some information may appear on your phone screen. This may only be the number or name of the person you are calling, but could also include how long you have been on the call.
Unlike land line calls, a call can be ended by either party such that other call can then be made. If you wish to end the call this is achieved by pressing the call end button. See your phones manual to see which key this is.
Mobile phones allow you to store the number of the people you call often, against a entered name in what is called contacts. Depending on the phone these contacts can be stored in the phones memory, in a SIM card or in both the memory and the SIM card. The benefit of storing contacts on a SIM card is that if that SIM card is put in another phone those contacts can be used in that phone. The main disadvantage of storing contacts in a SIM card is that SIM cards typically have less capacity for storing contacts than do phone memories. Some phones have the ability to copy contacts back and forth between the SIM cars and the phones memory.
Most phones have a menu function that allows you to access contacts but also have quick or short cut key that allows you to access contacts without having to go through the menus. You can determine if your phone has such a function by looking for it in the manual.
Most phones when showing you a alphabetical list of contacts have a way of quickly getting to the contact you wish to use without having to use the up or down navigation keys to move through your list of contacts. On a non smart phone this is usually achieved by pressing the key that that represents the letter that the contacts name starts with. However because most keys on a non smart phone have multiple letters on them you may have to press a key the number of times to get to that letter. For example, because the letter S is the 4th letter on the 7 key you will have to press the 7 key 4 times to show contacts that start with the letter S. The first contact starting with the letter you enter will be shown. After positioning on the appropriate letter you can use the up and down navigation keys move through the contacts in alphabetical order. However if you have large number of contacts that start with a specific letter, rather then moving through them one by one, you can use the same technique described above to move to the next letter in the contacts name. For example if you had many people in your contact list that stated with the letter S after entering S you could then enter say M to move to contacts that start with SM. This technique can be continued with as many letter as you wish to enter.
Some smart phones like the Iphone have a alphabetical list down the right of the screen and you touch the letter of the contact you wish to show and them slide the list up or down the screen. Other smart phones like Android phones will show you the letters of the alphabet as you slide to the right of a contact list so that when you stop on a letter it will position from the contact starting with that letter. You can then slide the list up and down.
Most phone allow you to have multiple phone numbers for each contact. Eg's, home number, work number and mobile number. If you do have multiple numbers against a name the phone will show you each of the numbers so that you can choose the one you wish to ring. To ring the number for the contact you have to press the call key. Your manual will show you which is the call key.
The way contacts are created changed and removed for a phone will depend on the type of phone you have. If it is not a smart phone your contact will be stored only in the phone and or the SIM card. If you do have a smart phone most likely the contacts will only be stored in the phones memory but may also also stored on a internet web server such as Google. Because the method of entering, changing or removing contacts will be different for different model phones you should refer to your phone manual for specific instructions.
Because of the possibility of making a mistake when entering phone numbers, especially mobile numbers, as contacts, the best way is to have the number entered into the phone for you. Most mobile phones will record the phone number for all calls you receive and that number in the call log can be used as a contact so only requiring you to enter a name against the number. This is usually achieved by selecting a menu function, something to the effect of “Save as Contact” within the call log. Check out your manual for this facility.
If you receive a SMS message for someone, that SMS message will be stored in your phone. At the end of the SMS message will be the phone number of the person that sent you the SMS. Most mobile phones have the ability to use the number part of the SMS message in contacts. See your manual for how to do this.
If your phone has bluetooth connectivity, you can send or receive one, some, or all of your contacts to or from another mobile phone that also has bluetooth connectivity and is within bluetooth range. Bluetooth, depending on which class is involved, has a range from 1 to 100 metres.
Most phones have the ability to copy contacts to and from SIM cards. It is therefore possible to get the contacts that are in another phone by copying the contacts from the phones memory to a SIM card, remove that SIM card from that phone and place it in your phone and then copy the contacts from the SIM card to the phones memory and the replace the original SIM card. See your phone manual for how to copy or move contacts between the phone memory and SIM cards and inserting and removing SIM cards.
Most mobile phones can be connected to a computer in some way, it which case a disk may be proved with the phone that allows you to install software on a computer so that you can maintain contact details on a computer and then transfer them to your phone. It is easier to enter contact details on a computer keyboard than a phones keyboard.
Some phone service providers have a SIM card backup facility such that if you loose your phone or phones SIM card or the phone SIM card becomes faulty the information on the SIM card can be restored to a new SIM card.
If you have a smart phone that has internet connectivity and you use an internet service such as Google all your contact details are automatically also stored on the internet and also automatically synchronised between the phone and the internet.
If you do not want to use any of the above methods you can enter a phone number and a name directly into the phone. This can usually be done before you make a call or as you are making a call. See your manual for details.
Changing and removing contact details usually can only be preformed within the contacts menu of your phone
Speed dialling on non smart phones is usually the ability to dial a phone number by pressing only one key. Usually speed dialing is set up as a sub function of contacts. A contact or phone number can be assigned to the 1 through to 9 keys and then later used by holding down the appropriate key.
On smart phones the equivalent to speed dialling is usually set up by creating a shortcut on the main screen that will dial the persons number when that shortcut icon is touched. The icon for the person may also contain there photo.
Short Message Service (SMS) is a function of the mobile phone network that allows all modern mobile phones to send short (a maximum of 160 characters) messages to other mobile phones as well as some fixed line phones. In the USA in 2008, people where sending more SMS messages than they where making mobile calls. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS for more on the concepts and background of SMS
When you receive a SMS the phone will indicate in some way that a SMS has been received. Some phones allow you read that received message by pressing a key whist the indicator on the screen that a SMS has been received is being displayed. If you phone does not do this or you wish to read a previously received SMS you need to be navigate to the messaging part of your phones menu. See Operate Menus Then you may need to navigate to the inbox. The inbox is where all the messages you have received are stored. The Inbox will show you a list of messages usually as the name or number of the person that sent it to you. By using the navigation key you can move through the messages. Via some form of options, you may be able to do various things with the message such as: reply to it, delete it, call the sender, use parts of the message, like the number, forward the message to someone else, change the content of the message to be used in another message, move the message to other folders, copy the message to be used as a template for other messages, create a new message, mark or tag the message to do something else with it or mark or tag all messages.
In addition to the Inbox most phones have folders (grouping of messages) for Draft messages, where you can save messages that you do not yet want to send, Outbox, that stores all the messages you have attempted to send but have not yet been sent, Sent Items, stores all messages you have sent and Saved Items, stores messages you have saved. Each of options described above can be performed on each of the messages in the described folders. Some folders have or allow you to create sub folders (folders within folders) Some phones allow you to have messages if the formats other than text, such as photos, videos and sound.
To compose a SMS you need to be navigate to the messaging part of your phones menu. See Operate Menus Then you may need to select, to create message and indicate that it is a phones SMS message, as opposed to other types of messages, like email, flash and audio messages. Depending on the phone, you may have to indicate who you are sending the message to before you compose the message. Other than entering the phone number of the person you want to send the SMS to, you can usually also select to person via your phones contacts in a method similar to making a call using contacts
If your phone only has a phone keyboard you will have to Use a Phone keyboard to type alphabetic letters. However if you have a full keyboard or a smart phone, all or most of the typing can be achieved by pressing each key only once.
Even though most modern mobile phones allow you to type relatively long messages, the phone service providers may charge you a SMS charge for each 153 characters or part their of. As an example, if you send a message that is 400 characters in length you will be charged for sending 3 SMS messages, one for the first 153 characters a second for the second 153 characters and a third for the last 94 characters. 153+153+94 = 400. When multipart or segmented SMS are sent the number of characters per segment is only 153, as opposed to the normal 160, because segment information is included in the message. Every key you enter, including spaces, number and other symbols is included in the character count. Some phones will show you a count of the characters as you enter them, but many do not.
After you have composed the message their will usually be some method of sending it. Before you do so you should insure that you have mobile reception. See Show the phones status, as you can will not be able to successfully sent a message if you do not have mobile reception. After you send the message you will either have something on the phone show or indicate to you that the message has been successfully sent or that it has been not sent. An indication the the message has been successfully send does not mean that the receiver has received it, it only means that the mobile phone network has received it. Their are many reasons that the receiver may not receive the message.
If you have a phone that can send email you should consider using this to send messages as it always much cheaper to send email from a phone than to send SMS messages. At $0.25 per 160 characters for SMS's, this is equivalent to over $7 million per Gigabyte.
- If your phone has a key that is indicated on the display as Options press that key. What happened? A list of options appeared that you can choice from
Most non smart phone keyboards look like this. Notice that each of the number keys from 2 through to 9 also have 3 or 4 letters associated with them. Whenever you are required to type text on your phone you press the key that has the letter you wish to type. However if the letter you wish to type is not the first letter on the key then you will have to press that key the number of times corresponding to the position of that letter on the key. For example, if you wanted to type the letter A you only need to press the 2 key once, but if you wanted to type the letter S you would have to press the 7 key 4 times as S is the 4th letter on the 7 key.
As a consequence of the above if you wish to repeat a letter you should pause about a second before pressing the same key again. For example if you where to press the 2 key twice quickly the letter B would be displayed, but if you press 2 the letter A will appear then wait for a second and then press 2 again a second A will appear. The consequence of having multiple letters on keys is that delays have to be made in typing.
Generally the zero key will insert a space and the 1 key produces a full stop. After typing a full stop often you are automatically changed to first letter of current word capital mode.
If you wish to enter numbers whilst typing text you can do so by holding down that numbers key until the number appears
If you wish to change from small to capital letters this can usually be achieved by pressing the # key once or multiple times. On doing so the phone screen may indicate that you are in capitals mode, small letters mode or first letter of current word capital mode.
If you wish to type symbols that are not shown on any key, this can usually be achieved achieved by pressing the * key. A list of symbols will be displayed and you can use the navigation keys to position on the key you want to use and then press a key indicated by the display as being the “use” key.
If you make a mistake whilst typing you can remove the last letter you typed be pressing the key indicate on the display as being the clear key. If the mistake is not the last letter you typed you can use the navigation keys, usually left or up, to position to the right of the incorrect letter(s) and remove it/them by pressing the clear key. If you wish to insert letters between already typed text you can do so by positioning to the left of the point where you wish to insert with the navigation keys and type as described above.
Most phones allow you to save what you have typed as a draft message and then later use that draft. Some phones also have pre-set messages that can be used or copied in to messages that you are composing. Some phone also allow you to mark/select text for cutting coping and pasting.
NOTE: The Below exercise are written for Nokia phone that use the 0(zero) key to enter a space. Some other phones may use another key to enter a space. Please refer to your phones manual
Voice Mail is a facility offered by your mobile phone service provider where by, under certain conditions, people that call you get to record a message that at a later point in time you are able to hear. It is a bit like an answering machine except without the machine. With voice mail the recorded messages are stored on a computer belonging to your phones service provider and you dial that number to access those messages. The voice mail messages are not normally every stored on your phone. However voice mail is set up and operated by using your mobile phone. The main benefit of using voice mail is that it allows people to leave a message for you if you phone is switched off, is out of mobile phone range or you are already on a call. Voice mail does not provide any significant benefit if all calls your receive go to your voice mail as it defeats the purpose of having a mobile phone, that of being contactable where ever you are.
Most mobile phone service providers charge for depositing and or retrieving voice mail messages. See Call and other charges, the voice mail section
For additional charges some mobile phone service providers have premium voice mail service than can convert message sent to you to text and then deliver that text as a SMS message or converted to a MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) message (in this case a voice file) and sent to your phone.
Although the concept of voice mail can be quite good most people leaving messages do not say why they are calling you, instead only leave a message saying please call me back so that you end up paying for them wanting to speak to you plus the cost of the voice mail. As this situation occurs often mobile phone service providers have voice mail set to on, because it provides more income to them. You have to go through the process of getting voice mail switched off.
Setting up voice mail requires 2 broad steps. Creating a greeting message and setting under what conditions incoming calls will be diverted to voice mail. To set up a greeting message you dial the number to your voice mail service and follow the interactive voice response (IVR) voice prompts. Typically such systems tell you a list of function you can perform which you respond to by pressing a number on your phones key pad. One of those options will be to record a greeting message where when activated you speak the greeting message to you phone.
With modern mobile phones their are two ways of setting the conditions under which incoming call are diverted to your voice mail. The first is via your phones menus. Typically this is under setting/call/diversion menus. The second is by typing a combination of symbols and numbers into your phone. For example to divert calls to voice mail If you are on another call or if you phone isn't answered or is switched off or hasn't any coverage you would key in **004*321#. To get a full list of these symbol number options you need to contact your mobile phone service provider or find then on their web site.
When you are talking to someone on your mobile phone, depending on the phone and your mobile service provider their are a number of features you may be able to use.
Most phones allow you to use most of the normal functions of the phone such as looking at contacts and most other menu functions. However be careful not to press the hang up button as this could end the call.
Some phones have a loud speaker function that can be used within a call so that you can use the phone without holding up to you ear. This is also useful if you wish to have other near to you to be able to hear and speak to the person you are speaking to. To activate the load speaker function within a call it may be by pressing the button shown as speaker on the screen of via a option menu.
Another feature that some phone allow when within a call is to record the conversation. This is usually activated by pressing a key shown on the screen as Options and then selecting the record function. You may also be able to start stop or pause the recording.
A handy function that some phones have is the ability to Mute the call. That is set it so that the person you are speaking to can not hear you but you can still hear them. This can be an advantage when you wish to talk to someone near you without the person on the phone hearing the conversation. Modern mobile phones have very sensitive microphones that may pick up sounds of people near to you even if you cover the phone with your hand. Because they are so small it is often difficult to even find the microphone (part that picks up your voice) on a mobile phone to cover it. To mute the call press the key show on the screen as Options and then select the Mute option. You can usually un-mute the call by pressing a key shown on the screen as unmute.
A variation on the mute feature is the hold feature. This does much the same as the mute but nether part to the call can hear each other. To hold the call press the key show on the screen as Options and then select the Hold option. You can usually un-hold the call by pressing a key shown on the screen as unhold.
Depending if your mobile service provide allows it, you may be able to have conference calls on your phone. That is where multiple people can talk and listen to multiple other people. See Managing Multiple Calls
Mobile phones as well as land line phones allow you to have multiple people talking and listening at the same time. It is called conference calls It is a function of the phone network rather than of the phones them selves. However modern mobile phones have functionality built into them that makes it easier to use conference calls. You need to make sure that your phone service provider allows you to handle multiple calls and how many people can be in the one conversation at the one time. There may me a charge by your phone provider for making conference calls in addition to the normal call rates.
The benefit of conference calls is that multiple people in different locations can join in on a group discussion at the same time. This can save the need to ring individual people and repeat the same information. In addition to the conference call by using the load speaker function others near the phone can be a party to a conversation.
Provided you have not set up to divert when busy, it may be possible to have a conference call by answering a call whilst in another call. If you are in a call in this situation, and someone else ring you you will hear a tone to indicate this. Then you may be able to via an options menu, to put the current caller on hold and answer the calling number. Then again by using the options you may be able to select a option called “conference” such that all callers are then on the call together.
Other than the above you can initiate a conference call in the following way. Ring the first person you wish to speak to. Asks them to wait and via the options menu put them on hold. Then dial the number of another person. When they answer ask them to wait and via the options menu select “conference”. All three people will be on the call at the same time. Depending on your phone provider you may be able to add more people to the call in the same way. You may have via your options menu the ability to remove people from the call. As you are the initiator of the call if you hang up all the others will also be disconnected.
Ring are the sounds that mobile phones make to indicate to you to that someone is ringing you. Modern mobile phones allow you to use virtually any sound as a ring tone. The phones usually have a number of built in ring tones but via various methods you can add additional ring tones to your phone. Additionally as most phones have to ability to record sound you can create you own ring tones.
Most modern mobile phones also allow you to allocate a different ring tone to each person or group of people in your contacts so that when that person rings you a specific ring tone will be used so that you could identify who is ringing you just by the ring tone. By using the recording ability of your phone you could record the voice of a person so as to be there ring tone.
There are services you can subscribe to on you phone that download (transfer to you phone) ring tones to your computer. However the cost of these services is usually not proportionate to the value of the commodity (ring tones) that the supply when you realise how easy it is to produce ring tones.
As mentioned earlier and recorded sound can be used as a ring tone. Often people will us a piece of music or a portion of a piece of music. Most modern mobile phones have the ability to store music as, what is called MP3 files. In which case you may be able to use a track of your favourite piece of music as a ring tone. Using a computer you could use a portion of a music track as a ring tone or combine multiple parts of music or any other sounds to make a ring tone.
To set a ring tone usually requires you to be in the Settings/Tones menu. Their may be a setting for incoming call alert, which could be set to ringing, meaning the conventional way a phone rings, ascending, the sound start quiet and progressively get louder, ring once, meaning the ring tone only gets played once, beep once, meaning that a beep sound is played once only or off meaning no sound at all is made. Ther will be a setting for ringing tone. At this point you may be able to set any of the ring tones that come with you phone or open a sound gallery that has sounds you have added to you phone or recorded your self. You may also be able to download ring tones. Other than setting ring tones for incoming calls you usually can also set then for arriving SMS messages, emails and alerts. Alerts are where you are notified of something by the phone, such as a alarm time expiring.
To set a different ring tone for each contact or group of contacts usually requires you to be within the contacts or contact groups menu and then set that contact or contact group to a specific ring tone.
To record you own ring tone usually requires you to be in a medial menu and the recorder function. A button is presses that starts the recording and that same button is usually pressed to stop recording. The phone often provides the name of the recording that you can then refer to when setting ring tones, or you may be able to rename it to a name of your choice.
Modern mobile phones, like most modern electronic devices and have a built in clock, so can be used as a time piece. Because many people have their phone with them all the time, some people use their phone as a replacement for a watch.
In addition to having a clock built in, most modern mobile phone also have multiple, usually unlimited in number, alarms and count down timers, so making them more versatile than watches. Associated with the alarms and count down times can be text and other information again making then more versatile than watches. Count down timers set off an alarm after a pre determined time has elapsed. They are the similar in concept to an egg timer only much more accurate.
Most modern phone also have a calendar function so that a large amount of information can be recorded against each calendar event with alarms able to be associated with each event. See
Because of the above it is important that you have you phone set to the correct time and date. This is usually done via the Setting/Date and Time Menu. Both the date and time are set in the format that is specified in the Date and Time form setting. That is you can usually have time in 12 or 24 hour mode and the date in a variety of setting such as Day, Month, Year as number or number and words or month, day, year.
After setting the date and time some phone ask what world time zone you are in either by named area or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) plus or minus certain hours. Australia is GMT + 10 hours. Some also ask it daylight saving is applicable so that they adjust automatically where appropiate.
The more modern phones allow you to have the date and time set automatically by the phone. The phones that do this do so by taking the time from the mobile phone network or from the internet. This way you are likely to have a much more accurate time than the most expensive of watches.
Very accurate stop watch functionality can be available on some mobile phones.
Some phones have a built in FM (stereo) radio. However to use the FM radio you need to plug in earphones, not so much to hear the radio, as it may be able to be played through the phones speaker, but to act as an aerial. As a consequence phones that do have built in FM radio will ask you to plug in head set (earphones) before you can use the FM radio functionality. When the head set is plugged in the functionality will be similar to that of modern car radios. That is you will be able to scan for the strongest radio stations and have then set as pre-set stations, go up and down through the pre-set stations or to find stations and to listen to stations.
Some phones may also allow you to record what you are listening to via the phones recording functionality
Blue tooth allow you phone to communicate carelessly (with out cables) with other devices like Blue tooth headsets, car kits, built in car phone functionality, other phones and computers.
Blue tooth is a wireless technology that extends over relatively short distances, usually less than 10 metres. Once connected via Blue tooth you can either use other devices such as Blue tooth headsets, and cars phone functionality to make and receive calls or transfer information,like contacts, pictures and videos, to and from other devices such as other phones and computers.
Compared with other forms of transferring information such as Wifi mobile internet, Blue tooth is relatively slow.
Before you can use Blue tooth you have to switch it on, make it visible to other devices and Pair it to other devices.
The functionality of Blue tooth is usually under a connectivity menu which is part of the Settings menu.
Within the Blue tooth functionality will usually be options to switch Blue tooth on and off and make you phone visible or not visible. When visible the name of your phone, that you set within a Blue tooth setting, can be seen on any other Blue tooth devises that are with in Blue tooth range.
After setting Blue tooth on and making your phone visible you can Pair to another Blue tooth device that also has Blue tooth switched on and is visible via options in the Blue tooth Pairing menu. The process is usually achieved by selecting the device and selecting the device from a list and entering a passcode. The passcode is a code you enter that then also has to be entered on the other devise. The idea being that others can not access your phone without knowing the entered passcode. If the passcode is entered correctly on both devises they are considered to be paired and can be used in conjunction with one another or the transfer information between them.
Settings allow you to set your phone to up in a way that suits your particular requirements. Their is usually a setting menu (see operate menus that typically has the following sub menus.
Profiles: Where you can save and quickly change to a combination of settings Themes: When the way various screen are presented to you can be quickly changed Tones: When various sounds you phone makes can be saves created aor used Display: Where some items that are displayed can be set Date and Time: Where the date, time and date and time formats can be set Shortcuts: Where certain functionality can be associated to the navigation keys of the main screen Connectivity: Where the way the phone connects to other devices can be set Call: Where the way the phone makes and receives calls can be set Phone: Where the way the phone operated other than to do with call can be set Enhancements: Where devices associated with the phone, such as headsets and headphones can be set Configuration: Where what setting are able to operate in what functionality are set Security: Where you can bar certain types of calls and put make it so a password type of code has to be entered to use certain functionality Restore Factory Settings: Where you can set the phone to the way it was when it first left the factory
This is where the phone makes no sound at all. It is designed so that you can leave your phone on in places that where you would normally have it off such as in a cinema, in a meeting or when attending a church service, but still be able to know that someone is ringing you but the phone vibrating and something being displayed on the screen.
Some phones have a fixed silent mode that could be selected by quickly pressing the phones on/off button. Some other phones have a silent mode as one of the profiles in the settings menu. Some phones allow the silent mode to be set only up to a specific time. If your phone does not have this then it is important that you remember to switch the silent mode off, otherwise you could end up missing incoming calls.
Generally the use of mobile phones are banned in aircraft whilst the aircraft is flying. The two reasons for this are the possibility of the signals from the mobile phone interfering with aircraft navigational equipment and that mobiles phones at aircraft heights are liable to interfere with the mobile phone network because a phone could contact multiple phone towers at the same time. For more information see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phones_on_aircraft
However mobile phones can be used for a large number of functions other than phone calls. Consequently the more modern phones have what is termed Airplane mode. In this mode the mobile call functionality of the phone is switched off but all the other functionality of the phone still operates. Practically all airlines allow the use of mobile phone in Airplane mode whilst in the cruse portion of a flight.
If you phone has a airplane mode this could be switched on or off via an option after quickly pressing the phone on/off button or via a menu function.
When in Airplane mode you will not be able to send or receive calls or text messages, so make sure you switch off Airplane mode when your flight has landed
Most phones have a calculator function to allow you to perform the same functions that you would otherwise perform on a calculator. The calculator function of you phone may be under the Organiser menu. Some phones allow you to use normal, scientific and loan calculator functions. Typically theses functions are accessed via a option menu with the calculator function.
The Calendar function on a mobile phone is equivalent to writing something in a Diary with the exception that the the phone can set off an alarm warning you of something in the Calendar, the entries can remain for a long time and you do not have to purchase a new Diary each year.
Depending of the functionality built in to your phones Calendar some phone have the ability to synchronise the Calendar with one or multiple computer or internet calendars, so that with the appropriate security measures set, it is possible for other people to check and so schedule events in your calendar or for you do so on others calendars.
The Calendar function of your phone may either be a separate function or come under an Organise menu function. Depending on the phones calendar functionality, you may be able to view your calendar on a daily, weekly, monthly or agenda basis with the ability to move forward and backward in time by days, weeks, months or years.
Typically a month view will show month name and year as a heading with column heading for each day of the week, Monday to Sunday, with the day of the month number in the rows below the heading, often with the day number of the preceding and next month also shown. Some method of indicating that an event exists for a day, such a a dot or the day number in bold will be displayed.
A week view may show the month and year heading with column heading for the day of the week, Monday to Sunday, but with left most column showing the hours of the day. Entries where an event exists will typically be indicated by coloured blocks and the first few characters of the events description.
A day view may show the day of the week and date as a heading with the left most column as the hour of the day. An event could be indicated by coloured blocks and most of the text describing the event.
Some method will be provided to enter a new event, edit/change an existing event or delete/remove an event. When entering a new event the type of event can be set such as Reminder, Meeting or Birthday, a description of the event, the start and end date and time of the event, where the event is to take place, if it is to to include guests, if it is to be repeated on a daily, weekly, monthly or annual basis and if a reminder is to be associated with it, may be allowed to be entered.
If your calendar had an Agenda view this typically shows only dates for which events have been entered
The calendar may indicate to you if you have a conflict or overlapping of events
If you have set alarms for the reminder against events, at the reminder time the alarm should make an appropriate sound and you may have the option to snooze the alarm, in which case the alarm will go of again based on the pre set snooze time or you can dismiss the event, in which case you will no longer be reminded of the event. Usually via a set up function you can chose an appropriate phone ring tone for calendar events. If you do not have your phone with you when an event alarm sounds it will only continue to make the sound for set period of time and them will no longer remind you of the event.
Provided you have your phone with you or where you can hear its reminders sounds, calendars are very useful for all forms of reminders such as, taking medication, future doctors or hospital appointments, that you should ring someone, deadlines of when something has to be completed, visits of other people or when something has to be removed from a freezer or oven.
Calendar events differ from Alarms and Count Down Timers, that are one day based, in that they can be set for any time and number of times in the future and that the record of them is retained.
The length of time that Calendar events remain in your phone will depend on the phone and possible also the size of the phones memory.
If your phone has the ability to synchronise (made the same as another) with a computer calendar or internet calendar this may be achieved automatically or may have to be initiated by you. If you do synchronise with, typically a internet calendar, you may have to ability to view and make entries into other peoples calendars in which case the “Guests” part of entering an event can be used to invite people to your events. This is done via the other persons email address so also requires you to have email functionality on your phone. If this is the case you may also find that other people have invited you to their events, such that their event automatically appears in your Calendar on your phone.
Most modern mobile phone have a built in camera that can be used to take both still photos and moving (video) images. Often what distinguishes the pricing of phones is the size in megapixals of the image that a phone can take.
All digital cameras, including those in phones,have a certain megapixel size. That is the number of pixels, explained later, in millions, that make up each photo. A pixel is a single dot in a photo. The sum of the number of pixels across by the number of pixels down divided by a million is the megapixel size. Generally the larger the megapixel of the camera the better the images will be. However increasing the number of megapixel beyond three will not be noticeable unless you printed pictures that are beyond the small normal 5 x 4 size. Unless you intend to print photos larger than 5 x 4 There is no benefit in having a higher megapixel camera.
Very few phones have a optical zoom camera and at the time of writing (June 2011) none have interchangeable lenses or lenses that are as good as the up market dedicated digital cameras. However many phone cameras can take a very good photo and some have the ability to record high definition video
Some phone cameras have built in flash so allowing photos to be taken in a dark or no light situations.
Because of the integration of other functions of mobile phones with their built in cameras it is possible to send and receive photos and video to and from other mobile phones, however if doing so the service providers charge a separate fee for every photo, video or certain length of video send. If you phone has email capabilities it would be significantly less cheaper to send photos and videos via email. Because of the cameras in phones it is also possibe to have live video conversations, but again this can be very expensive and it would work out much cheaper to use the data services of a phone with an application like Skype.
Smart phones, all of which have cameras, have the ability to integrate GPS functionality with the camera such that the exact location that pictures or videos are taken can be stored with the images. With the appropriate application on a smart phone it is possible to remotely control the camera within the phone via another phone or a computer to see what the camera is seeing and also know, via the GPS, where the phone and so images are coming from.
The ability the phone has to control its camera will vary considerable depending on the type of phone and the phones camera capabilities. However most phone cameras have the ability to: switch from still to video image mode, show still and video images that have been taken, digital zoom in and out, set white balance and set the size of the image taken. For a a greater explanation of what these functions are and how to use them see my Digital Camera Workshop notes
Typically phones have a separate menu function for camera functions and have a menu called Gallery for viewing images that are stored in the phone without having to use the camera menu.
Their are a number of way of getting photos stored in a camera to a computer or to print them. If your phone has a memory card, which are usually Micro SD cards, you can remove the Micro SD card from the phone (See Inserting and removing memory cards) place it in a SD adapter card and use that as you would in a computer or printer.
If you have a cable that connects your phone to a computer you can transfer images with the appropriate software installed on your computer, which is usually supplied on a disk that came with your phone.
Most phone now have blue tooth capability and the blue tooth functionality of a phone will allow you to transfer images to and from your phone to any other blue tooth enabled device which includes computers. (See Blue Tooth).
NOTE Some of the items below have not been completed yet. This is an ongoing project
Media Gallery or sometimes just called Media is the functionality that shows and may present in different ways, all the photos, videos and sometimes music (collectively called media )that is stored in your phone. Typically you are presented with a list of folders that are used to store your media. These folders may be in the form of the text describing then such as Camera Pictures, camera Videos or a a combination of the first few photos in the folder and text. On selecting a folder often thumbnails (small photos) will be displayed representing all the photos and or videos in a folder. On selecting a photo or video either the photo will be displayed the full size of the screen or the video will start playing the full screen size.
Some way will usually be provided to move forward and backwards through the media items and in the case of photos they can be examined in more (zoomed in) or less (zoomed out) detail. Often you will have the option to set the media item as the wallpaper (be the image on the main screen on your phone or as the icon for a contact in you contacts list, or share the media item via blue-tooth, messaging, email or social media and of course delete the media item.
Some phones allow you to do some editing of the media item. In the case of photos this can include cropping the photo (showing a smaller part of it) rotating it and applying effects to it. If the photo has had positional information associated with it some phone allow where the photo was taken to be shown on a map.
Most modern phones have the ability to play music or recorded sound. The standard format for storing music or sound on a phone is MP3. MP3 is a computer file format that allows recorded sound to be stores in about 10% of the space that would be used if that same sound was stored on a CD.
If you own CD's it is quite legal, under that latest Australian copyright legislation to convert your CD's to MP3 format and to even give those copies to direct family members, although it may say otherwise on the CD's and CD covers. The converting process is usually performed on a computer that has a CD/DVD drive with what is called a ripping program. Such a program that you can download and use for free is FreeRip. http://www.freerip.com/
Once you have your music or sound in a MP3 format their are a number of ways of getting it from your computer to you phone depending on what type of phone you have and its capabilities. If you phone has a removable memory card, see Memory Cards the memory card could be placed in SD card adaptor and that put in a computer that can accept this adaptor. The MP3 files are then copied to the SD card adaptor. With some phones you have to copy it to a specific folder. See your manual to see which folder to use.
Another way of getting music or sound to your phone is via blue tooth. See blue_tooth Blue tooth can be slow if you want to copy a large number of MP3 files. Blue tooth can be used to copy MP3 files for other blue tooth enabled devices such as other phones.
If you can connect a cable to your phone you may be able to copy MP3files from a computer to you phone via the cable. Check your phones manual to see if this can be done.
Some phones have the ability to transfer files to and from a computer via Wi-fi networking by installing a file management App that allows such functionality. If you copy MP3 files this way it will be much faster than using blue tooth.
Another way to transfer MP3 files from a computer to a phone is an attachment to an email. See Email. However this will use up part of your internet quota.
Yet another way of transferring MP3 files to your phone from another phone is via the mobile phone network messaging system. Basically this is attaching a file to a text message. These are called Multi Media Messages. This is the most expensive way to transfer MP3 files because your mobile phone provider will charge you a fixed amount for each MP3 files you send.
Lastly most smart phones have a sound recording function that allows any sounds near the phone to be recorded. It is therefore possible to record music, or anything else, and replay it on your phone. The quality of music recorded in this way would not be as good as other copying methods discovered above and the recording would not be in stereo.
In addition to using putting your own music or sound files on your phone with smart phones you can also purchase MP3 music files. This is usually done via an App specifically for this task. However their is a big distinction between purchased MP3 music files and ones that you copy to your phone. The purchased ones have digital rights management encoded in to the file. This basically means that the file can only be played on your phone and also may have other restrictions such as the ability to only play the file a certain number of times.
If you have MP3 files on your phone and have a music App or a music playing function on the phone it will allow you to select a MP3 file or group of files to play. Generally their will be some way to pause and stop playing, jump to the next or previous track and jump to any part of a track. Generally the playing of music can be performed whilst using functions other than those that also require sound such as making a call. Some phone allow you to set up play lists so that you can hear music in the order of your choice or in a random order. Their can also be a function that allows you to continually repeat part of a track a full track or group of tracks.
Other than playing music it is possible to obtain other sound files such as audio books, audio training material and radio pod casts. These can be obtained from the internet or copied from a computer.
Most smart phones do not have a keyboard but allow you to operate by touching the screen in some way. Their are a number of ways to use the touch screen such as: Touch or tap, double tap, swipe, long touch pinch and touch a specific displayed area. The manual may show how to use this functionality and if you phone has these functions.
Touch , sometimes also called tapping, is placing a finger on an item being displayed and quickly removing your finger. Depending on the phone and what settings have been set the item you touch may be indicated in some way and or the phone may vibrate. Usually touching is used to start some function or select a menu item
Double taping is touching an item on the screen twice within a short period of time. It is often used to zoom in (make bigger) a map or a picture.
Swiping is placing your finger on a point on the screen and whilst leaving you finger on the screen sliding your finger to another position on the screen. The starting and ending point of the swiping can result in different functions. eg you can swipe left to right on the bottom middle or top of the screen, or right to left, top to bottom, bottom to top or even diagonally across the screen. Swiping can be used for a number of functions. Two examples are to unlock the phone or swipe in a particular pattern as a security code.
Long touch is placing your finger on a item on the screen and leaving your finger on that position for a certain period of time. It can be used for a variety of functions but most often allows more functionality than just touching an item. eg a long touch on a icon on a screen may allow it to be then moved to a different position on the screen by swiping.
Pinching is placing two fingers on the screen and sliding them together or apart. The main function this is used for is to zoom in and out on images.
Touching a specific area that is displayed on the screen is often used to go back, call up a menu or do a search. Icons, usually at the bottom of the screen indicate the area to be touched.
These exercises are only applicable if you have a touch screen phone
Most smart phones have what is called a virtual keyboard. That is when you are required to type something you are presented with part of the display that show a picture of a keyboard. Parts of the keyboard picture can be touched such that the character you touch is displayed where you are typing. Depending on the information you are required to enter a different keyboards may be displayed. eg. For entering phone numbers a phone keyboard will be displayed where as for typing messages or emails a typewriter type keyboard will be displayed.
With some phones it is possible to install via Apps additional keyboards
The advantage of these keyboards is that they have some intelligent features built in, such as the ability to start a new sentence with a capital letter, the ability to predict the word you are typing and to correct spelling mistakes.
To type letter when a typewriter keyboard is displayed tap the letter you want. If you want to type a capital letter tap the shift key (usually a upward pointing arrow). The display will change to show capital letters. After typing the capital letter the keyboard will change back to small (lower case) letters automatically. If you want to type numerous continuous capital letters tap the shift key twice. This locks the keyboard to capital letters. Taping the shift key when it is locked in capitals will return it to small (lower case) letters.
Most virtual keyboards do not have numbers on the typewriter keyboard. To type a number amongst letters you have to first press the 123 shift key that is usually on the bottom left of the keyboard. Doing so shows a new keyboard picture with the digits 1 to 9 and a 0 as the top row and the other special symbols on the other keys. If the symbol is not displayed taping the ALT key may bring up even further symbols. To return to the original keyboard you then have to tap the ALT or ABC key which will be where the 123 key was.
Some keys such as the full stop and comma allow you to long press on them to allow you to select additional symbols.
If you wish to delete the character you just typed you can press the delete key (usually and X in a rectangle pointing left)
To correct previous entered text you may have to touch to the right of where the mistake is and use the delete key to remove the incorrect letters and then type the correct letters. Some phones allow you to long press on text such that it is magnified so as to may it easier to more precisely get to the point to make corrections.
Some phones have a microphone key that when touched allows you to speak and your spoken words will appear as text. However this is not always 100% accurate
It is also possible to purchase external keyboards that can connect to you phone via Blue tooth.
Apps can be installed on a phone that allow you to type on a computer keyboard and the results appear on you phone via Wifi
These exercises are only applicable to smart phones that have a virtual keyboard, ie a keyboard that appears on the screen.
Email is the most popular computing application and when used on a smart phone has the advantage of being able to travel with you and in most cases is always switched on. Email is far less expensive to use than SMS messaging because you would be paying for it as part of a data plan rather than paying for each 160 character, or part there off, for SMS's. As an example if your data cost $5.00 for 500 Megabyte then 160 characters of an email would cost .15625 cents to send. Note that is a fraction of a cent compared to anything from 10 to 25 cents for a SMS message. And that email can be sent to anyone in the world. A disadvantage of emails is they cost you to receive, even thought the cost may be minor compared to SMS that in Australia do not cost anything to receive. Another disadvantage of emails is that because not all phones have email capability it is not possible to email to all phones. All modern mobile phones can receive SMS's.
Email requires to you have a data service on your smart phone. If you already have an email account or even multiple email accounts, you can send and receive email to/from all of them on a smart phone. Basically their a two ways to use email on a computer. With client email software or via a web browser. This also applies to using email on a smart phone. However because web browsers email is designed to operate on computer screens it can be a bit difficult to operate this type of email from a phone screen. Email Apps that come with smart phone are designed to be used with the phones screens so tend to be easy to use. Also when using Email Apps some of you emails can be stored on the phone so that you may be able to read previous received or sent messages even when outside of mobile phone coverage. You have to be within Mobile phone coverage to be able to send and receive emails.
Virtually anything that is stored on your smart phone can be attached to an email. Most applicable smart phone Apps have built in integration with email so that you can email information that you have captured or created within an App as an attachment to an email. Some examples are: contacts within your contact list, photos and videos you have taken, your current position on a map, tracks of where you you have been on a map or sound recording. The integration is often via a share icon that links to your email App.
Some email Apps allow you to synchronise your email messages and contact details, including phone numbers and photos of contacts, with your smart phone so that any email or contacts you have on your computers email account will also appear on your phone and vis versa. This is very useful if you get a new smart phone as it eliminates the need to re-enter contacts or copy them from a SIM card. If you use client email software on your computer that deletes the messages from the server after it copies the messages to your computer, you will not be able to then see those messages on your phone. However most email providers allow you to change the server setting, via a web interface, so as to keep messages on the server for a certain number of days in addition to coping them to your computer such that you will be able to see the messages for that many days on your phone.
All the same email functions that you may be used to on your computer are usually available on email Apps on your phone such that you can do what you would otherwise do on you computer on your phone.
To use email on your phone you have to enter the required setting into the email App. This can be as simple as your user name and password for Gmail on a Android phone or may require specific settings for other email providers. Check your phone manual and set up instructions on your email providers web site.
Web Browsers allow you to view and use web pages on the World Wide Web. Other than being on a smaller screen they allow you to perform the same functions with web pages that you would otherwise do on a computer. To a certain extent phone web browsers overcome their small screen restriction by allowing you to zoom in our out (make it look smaller or bigger) a web page. See ?????
The biggest advantage of using a web browser (internet) on a phone compared to a computer or even a lap top computer is that the phone is with you most of the time and is usually switched on. You can therefore have access to any functionally of all that can be obtained on the internet anywhere you have mobile reception. With this you can check competitive prices and other peoples reviews of products whilst shopping, look up information you may have stored on your own web page, cloud page or your home computer whilst at practically any location, switch on/off and control house hold devices like air conditioners, TV recording devices, lock or unlock doors and view and control security cameras and operate other computers
Other than having a specific icon for the internet which will start your web browser most phones have a predominate icon on the main home page that allows you to access the internet.
At the top of the web browser should be a address bar that allows you to type in a web address to enable you to access a specific web page. Some phones also have a search function or a specific search key that allows you to use a search engine such a Google to search for what you are looking for on the internet. Alternative you can enter the web address of a search engine into the address bar of your web browser. eg www.google.com.au for google. Your web browser may be set, via its setting, to load a particular web page when it is first started (Home Page)
Within a web page the parts of the page that are hyper linked may be shown in a different colour. If you touch one of these hyper links you may be presented with that linked page. The back button on your phone should allow you to go back to any previous page you have have come from. Some browsers allow you to long press on a link and then via a menu option open the link in a new window and with other menu functions to change to any of the opened windows without having to use the back function.
Some method is usually provided to make the information on the web page bigger or smaller (zooming) as well as moving around within a web page (panning).
When viewing a web page it can be possible to bookmark the page so as to later go to that web page directly, open a new window without closing the existing web page, change to previously opened web pages, refresh the web pages to see any changes that may have happened to it since you first opened it, copy all or parts of the web page, save all parts of the web page or share the web page with others.
Most Smart Phones have some form of mapping application. Generally that later ones do NOT charge you for using the maps as some did in the past. However most of the mapping applications load the maps to the phone via the phones internet connection such that you will be using up your phones internet quota. To that extent you are paying for the use of the maps. Their are a few mapping applications that allow you to store maps in the phones memory such that you can use those stored maps without an internet connection and so not use your internet quota. Theses such applications have to be purchased and or the maps may have to be purchased.
As all smart phones have a built in Global Positioning System (GPS) this allow you to see your current position on a map on the phones screen as well as do many other location based functions such as, find a location, find a type of business close to you, get directions, know the location of other people, locate your phone, get a vast amount of information such as average speed, maximum and minimum speeds and altitudes and share your and other positional information with others
Generally internet maps are seamless, meaning that you can move the map to any point in the world by swiping the phone and zooming in and out on the map. Their will usually be some method of making the map show your current position. Some mapping applications have the ability to store your movements (tracks) and fixed positions (way-points) and share this information with other via a web site or email.
The most commonly used internet mapping application, Google Maps, also has the ability to link to other applications such as Google Map search to find streets, features and business on maps, Latitude, where you can share your location with other Latitude users of your choice as well as see there location, Google Maps Navigation that will speak driving directions like Satellite Navigations Systems (see Satellite Navigation)and Google Street view, that allows you to see 360 degree photos of specific many locations around the world.
NOTE: To complete these exercises you may have to be out doors or at lease somewhere that has a clear view of the sky as The GPS functionality of phones require the phone to receive information from Satellites and can not do so through metal roofing and thick concrete buildings.
Satellite Navigation is the equivalent to the separate Satellite Navigation devices that you purchase that give you voice prompts such that you are directed to a specific location. Considering the cost of theses separate Satellite Navigation devices and that you can purchase a smart phone for less than $200 I don't see any benefit it having a separate device. Typically the maps and information on these separate Satellite Navigation systems have to be updated over time and there can be a subscription cost associated with this. Because of this I would not be surprised to find that separate Satellite Navigation devices end up like CD players, disappearing from shops, because smart phones have replaced them at much lower costs with greater functionality.
Their are three broad types of smart phone Satellite Navigation. Those that use maps and routing information stored in the phone, those that get that information via the internet or a combination of the first two. If the application only gets its information from the internet then in means that it is using up part of your internet quota and you can only get directions when you have a internet connection. As the internet, when your are mobile, is usually supplied via the mobile phone network and it does not cover all areas, then navigation and maps may not be available in remote areas. If the application only gets its information stored in the phone, you may not be using your internet quota but if the area you are travelling in is not stored in the phone you will not be able to get directions and maps for that area. Presently no smart phones have a sufficiently large enough memory to store all the streets in the world. Although the combination method sounds the best it relies on you making sure that you have downloaded the area you wish to travel to before you travel. Although mapping and direction information via the internet is likely to be more recent than what may be stored in the phone, it does not mean that any information will as up to date to the moment you are travelling. As an example the petrol station closest to where live, that has been there for a number of years, is not shown on the Google Maps Navigation, although this may be because it is a independent rather than part of a large group.
Because Satellite Navigation applications use a fair amount of power you may find that it will flatten your phones battery quite quickly. As this type of navigation is usually performed whilst in a car it is well worthwhile having the phone being powered by a car phone charger. Likewise if navigating whilst walking you can get external battery packs that use ordinary AA batteries that can power smart phones via their USB connectors.
On smart phones Satellite Navigation may be started as a sub application of Mapping or as a separate application. In either case you usually start off by indicating where you want to travel from, with your current location being the default and then where you wish to travel to. This is often done by entering in street addresses to which the application may show you multiple instances of a street name, if they exist, and allow you to select one. Their will usually be an option to say if you wish to travel by car, walk or via public transport. A map may be displayed indicating the route that the Satellite Navigation application intends to take you. It is well worthwhile looking at the suggested route as sometimes these applications can suggest routes that can take you the long way around. Their may be an ability to modify the suggested route prior to commencing your journey.
After the route is displayed a voice prompt should tell you where to move to in the form of: continue along such and such street for x km and then turn, left or right at such and such street. These voice prompts will continue as you move and should be announced sufficient distance from the points where you need to make turns. If you do not turn the way the application tells you, it will re-adjust it route so that you still end up at your destination. My experience in using these applications is that the most difficult instructions to follow are at roundabouts. These prompts are usually in the form of take the third exit at the roundabout. At roundabouts it can be difficult negotiating the traffic let alone counting the exits.
The application pronouncing street names can be quite amusing. They can come out quite different to how we pronounce them. As the prompts include the relative directions of left, right, straight ahead and the like, the pronunciation of the streets names tend not to be important.
Many options can be used whilst using this type of navigation such as muting the voice prompts, zooming the map in and out, changing how the map appears, showing all the turns points and ending navigation.
To do these exercises you will need to be moving is a car. However whilst learning you should be the passenger and not driving. Even after you have learn how to use Satellite Navigation you should not touch the phone or look at maps whilst moving, only listen to the voice prompts. Should you need to look at the phone or touch it, you should stop in a safe position to do so.